Creating City Blocks in 3ds Max - Part 10 - Sidewalks
In this tutorial, you add sidewalks to the road works. To do so, you first extract spline paths using the existing infrastructure, and then you use the Sweep modifier to block out the sidewalks. Once finished, you will work at an editable poly level to fine-tune the geometry and textures.
- Recorded in: 3ds Max 2014
- This tutorial is intended for use with 3ds Max version 2014 or higher.
00:00:06,516 --> 00:00:16,217
Continue working on your file from the last movie. You can also open the file CityBlocks_Roads-sidewalks.max if you need to catch up.
00:00:16,813 --> 00:00:24,193
So now you have three city blocks with three different road layouts, but you still need to add sidewalks and building lots.
00:00:24,540 --> 00:00:32,210
At this point you can hide or even delete the original road infrastructure you worked on, and the reference plane for that matter.
00:00:32,972 --> 00:00:38,215
Start with CityBlock-A, select it and zoom in on it in the top view.
00:00:39,230 --> 00:00:43,553
In the Modify panel, go to Border sub-object mode.
00:00:43,986 --> 00:00:50,709
This lets you select contour edges between roads, in effect all edges around a "hole", so to speak.
00:00:51,370 --> 00:00:54,670
Go ahead and select all the internal borders.
00:00:55,283 --> 00:01:01,226
Make sure the outside perimeter is not selected as it is also viewed as a border.
00:01:01,960 --> 00:01:07,063
With the inner borders selected, click the Create Shape From Selection button.
00:01:07,589 --> 00:01:14,330
The default is set to extract a Smooth shape. The problem is that a Smooth shape doesn't follow the road edges properly.
00:01:14,859 --> 00:01:18,103
Press Ctrl+Z if you need to undo the last command.
00:01:18,700 --> 00:01:27,214
Click Create Shape From Selection again but this time, make sure the command is set to Linear mode and click OK.
00:01:29,300 --> 00:01:37,910
Exit Border mode when done. You now have a shape that follows the road edges and that you can use as a path for the Sweep modifier.
00:01:38,580 --> 00:01:44,920
Select the new shape, currently named Shape001 and apply a Sweep modifier to it.
00:01:45,576 --> 00:01:54,905
Set the Sweep to Bar mode, with a Length of 0.15m (for the sidewalks height) and with a Width of 3m.
00:01:55,390 --> 00:02:01,940
As discussed before, the sweep modifier operates by default through the center point of the cross-section.
00:02:05,980 --> 00:02:13,770
Here, you need to adjust the pivot alignment so that the sidewalks are above the road level without overlapping the road surfaces.
00:02:14,535 --> 00:02:22,624
This means you need to use one of the bottom alignment options, left or right corners, depending how the border splines were created.
00:02:22,985 --> 00:02:27,104
The bottom left pivot preset seems to work fine in this case.
00:02:30,036 --> 00:02:37,510
It is possible that some splines are reversed, in which case the sidewalks would be spilling over the roads.
00:02:37,910 --> 00:02:45,440
If this happens, you need to go down to the Editable Spline level and go into Spline sub-object mode.
00:02:47,336 --> 00:02:54,122
Select the offending spline and reverse it; this should take care of the problem.
00:02:56,307 --> 00:03:03,359
Back to the Sweep modifier level, enable Gen. Mapping Coords. in Real-World Map Size,
00:03:06,820 --> 00:03:09,253
and then go to the Material Editor.
00:03:10,338 --> 00:03:14,475
Create a new Arch & Design material and use the Matte template on it.
00:03:15,299 --> 00:03:17,560
Make sure it's set to show in the viewport.
00:03:17,985 --> 00:03:25,941
As a Diffuse map, use the bitmap named RD_sidewalks-01-DIF.jpg
00:03:26,850 --> 00:03:33,170
Set it to Use Real-World Scale with Width & Height sizes of 3m to match the sidewalks width.
00:03:33,912 --> 00:03:39,431
Apply it to the sidewalks. At this time, the bitmap is flowing in the wrong direction.
00:03:40,080 --> 00:03:45,030
Set the W-Angle to -90 degrees. This seems to work better.
00:03:45,967 --> 00:03:56,138
You may consider tweaking the width & Height values. 3.15mx3.15m seem to wrap around the sidewalk edges a little better.
00:03:59,730 --> 00:04:07,580
If you want, you can use the image file RD_sidewalks-01-BMP.jpg as a bump map.
00:04:08,140 --> 00:04:11,500
Just make sure you give it the same specs as the diffuse map.
00:04:12,180 --> 00:04:19,300
As you test render later, you'll be able to tweak the bump strength. Set it to about .5 or .6 for now.
00:04:20,244 --> 00:04:23,502
Dismiss the material editor or move it away when done.
00:04:23,830 --> 00:04:29,080
In some areas, the sidewalk textures seems to be behaving but not in others.
00:04:29,663 --> 00:04:35,029
In certain areas, it seems to be breaking away into a skewing effect.
00:04:35,460 --> 00:04:38,150
This has to do with the geometry sub-divisions.
00:04:38,524 --> 00:04:47,467
Note this area for example, how one corner is evenly divided with 4 cuts whereas this other corner has only three.
00:04:48,543 --> 00:04:52,256
The trick is to add vertices on the original spline.
00:04:52,854 --> 00:05:01,150
Go down to the Editable Spline level but make sure Show End Results is enabled to see the effect on the sidewalks geometry.
00:05:01,975 --> 00:05:07,691
Go into vertex mode and use Refine to add vertices where you need them.
00:05:08,636 --> 00:05:12,647
Note how this seems to fix the distortion on the sidewalks.
00:05:14,300 --> 00:05:18,920
Go around the scene and make sure all corners have four cuts.
00:05:24,369 --> 00:05:30,171
Non-chamfered corners such as this one can have only three.
00:05:45,631 --> 00:05:52,512
This takes care of the long stretches of sidewalks. Corners would take a bit more effort if you need to adjust them as well.
00:05:52,930 --> 00:05:59,140
Keep in mind that if the camera is not getting close to these areas, you may not need to spend too much time on them.
00:05:59,870 --> 00:06:04,720
If you need to get the camera close, then you need to work a little harder to tweak the geometry.
00:06:05,036 --> 00:06:06,750
We'll get to that in a moment.
00:06:07,330 --> 00:06:12,039
Exit sub-object mode and convert the object to an editable poly.
00:06:12,506 --> 00:06:20,105
The sidewalk's cross-section being a rectangle, there are four polygons that go around each sidewalk segment.
00:06:20,670 --> 00:06:29,854
However, you really don't need to see the bottom polygon, or the one facing inside as there will eventually be a building lot surface to hide them.
00:06:30,451 --> 00:06:34,410
To remove all the unnecessary polygons, here's what you do.
00:06:35,113 --> 00:06:41,571
Switch to Edge mode and select a top edge on the outside of a sidewalk element, near the street.
00:06:42,330 --> 00:06:46,468
Click the Loop option to select the perimeter edges on that unit.
00:06:47,181 --> 00:06:53,421
Hold Ctrl and select a similar edge on another sidewalk unit and press Loop again.
00:06:54,731 --> 00:06:58,883
Repeat until all sidewalks are processed.
00:07:13,665 --> 00:07:20,759
Once all these perimeters are selected, hold Ctrl and press the polygon button to convert the selection.
00:07:21,336 --> 00:07:27,190
This selects the polygons that are connected to the previously selected edges and that you want to retain.
00:07:27,718 --> 00:07:34,411
All other polygons are unnecessary and won't need to show in the final render. They can therefore be deleted.
00:07:34,880 --> 00:07:41,020
Press Ctrl+I to invert your selection and then delete the unwanted polygons.
00:07:41,440 --> 00:07:47,010
From this point forward, you can fine-tune corners by adding segments to adjust the mapping.
00:07:47,550 --> 00:07:55,750
For that, you can select the polygons that you need to edit, and add geometry where needed using the QuickSlice tool for example.
00:08:26,620 --> 00:08:31,310
Using this technique, you can adjust the corners further,
00:08:32,865 --> 00:08:37,213
by dipping some areas to accommodate the pedestrian crossings,
00:08:37,993 --> 00:08:41,519
Or make the corners rounded if you need to.
00:08:42,347 --> 00:08:47,713
Take a few moments and go around your scene and tweak the sidewalk corners until you are satisfied.
00:09:08,390 --> 00:09:14,590
When you're done, you can attach the sidewalks to the roads,
00:09:18,739 --> 00:09:22,964
and consolidate the materials using the methods you learned earlier.
00:09:23,790 --> 00:09:30,220
Remember that when you're done with the first city block, you need to repeat the whole procedure for the other blocks you created.
00:09:30,690 --> 00:09:36,180
Since this is redundant work, I will not go through it in this movie but I encourage you to work it on your own.
00:09:37,570 --> 00:09:44,950
Ultimately, you can simply use the finished file you downloaded for this tutorial, but for now, we concentrate on the first city block.
00:09:45,461 --> 00:09:51,872
The next step is to create the building lots. The surfaces where buildings and other structures will be located.
00:09:52,387 --> 00:09:54,510
This is what you do in the next movie.