Modeling Facades in 3ds Max - Part 6 - Archways
In this final tutorial, learn how to deal with special opening such as archways. Keep in mind the techniques shown here are suitable for architectural modeling but not so much for organic or deformable meshes.
- Recorded in: 3ds Max 2011
- This tutorial is intended for use with 3ds Max version 2011 or higher.
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So far, you've dealt mostly with horizontal and vertical lines.
The SwiftLoop tool has been quite handy in those situations.
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In the case of something curved such as an archway, you'd need to use
the Cut tool and do some additional work with mapping.
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This second building shown here has so far been modeled using the same
techniques as the first building.
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You'll model the archway using the Cut tool in the Front viewport.
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In Edge mode, use the Cut tool to go around the arch.
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Remember the Cut tool's cursor changes as you hover over a vertex,
an edge or a face.
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Use that to your advantage to pinpoint the cut.
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Remember also that although this technique works well for façade
modeling, it is not recommended for organic modeling.
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When you plan to subdivide or deform a mesh, you want to keep
the quad poly integrity as much as possible. This is not the case here.
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Once the cuts are made, select the polygons that make the archway.
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Extrude the polygons inward to add depth. The same phenomenon
of streaking pixels appears.
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The faces that make the archway steps are easy to fix and require
planar mapping in the Z-axis, much like you did with the first building.
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The interior faces of the archway are more of a problem as they do
not face a single X, Y or Z direction.
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You could treat each face individually or you can use
the unwrapping Sketch tool.
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Add an Unwrap UVW modifier to the top of the stack.
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Select the faces that make the archway steps.
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Set a Planar Z-axis projection and go to the Edit UVs dialog.
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As you did with the first building, display the reference bitmap.
Make it brighter if you wish and filter the selection.
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Use the Freeform tool to scale and position the selected faces
to an area of the wall that also works well as a pavement.
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Next select all the inner faces of the arch.
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Apply a cylindrical mapping and align it in Y. You can see
the mapping gizmo surrounding the archway.
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As you flatten the mapping, you can decide where the seam is going to be.
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In this case, you want the seam at the bottom since the faces already
intersect at the top.
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The seam is shown by a green edge.
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Rotate the gizmo 90 degrees so that the seam is at the bottom.
You can use Angle Snap for precision.
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Use the Fit button to rearrange the gizmo.
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Exit Cylindrical mode and adjust the mapping so that the selected
faces sit slightly above the arch.
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If you select the right face in the Edit UVs dialog,
you'll notice the left face is selected in the viewport.
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Mirror all the faces horizontally in the Edit UVs dialog to fix that problem.
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Switch to Vertex mode and select the Sketch Vertices tool in the Tools menu.
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Here, you will use the Free Form Align method.
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Also ensure that Interactive mode is enabled.
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After you have set up the Sketch Tool to use Free Form drawing,
you work in a two-step manner.
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First, drag to select the vertices you want to reposition;
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and second, draw a freehand stroke to place the selected vertices.
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Work on another set of vertices until you block out vertex positioning.
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Right-click to exit Sketch Vertices mode.
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After that, you can fine-tune your work by moving individual vertices
to other locations.
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Work on other areas of the building like sides, window jambs and sills.
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Save you file when you are done. Two more façade textures
have been provided for you to practice these techniques.
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A completed file with four buildings has also been provided
for your convenience.
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This concludes this project, we hope you have enjoyed it.